新冠疫情下对伊朗援助是否违反美国贸易制裁政策

作者:王剑

观点

随着新冠肺炎疫情的爆发,伊朗成为中国境外新冠肺炎疫情爆发的最严重地区之一,截至3月7日,伊朗已确诊病例为4747例。针对日趋严重的疫情情况,伊朗驻华大使馆于3月4日发出了捐赠信息,当天的捐款达到了人民币400万元[1]。同时,中国的企业和民间机构开展了相应的捐赠活动。那么这些捐赠是否符合美国对于伊朗的贸易制裁呢?针对此问题,美国财政部海外资产控制办公室(The Office of Foreign Assets Control of the US Department of the Treasury, OFAC)于美国时间3月6日在官网上给出了解答。解答内容如下:

 

Q:820. I want to help with the humanitarian response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Iran.  What can I do to help while remaining compliant with U.S. sanctions?

问:我想对伊朗爆发的新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情(COVID-19)提供人道主义援助。在遵守美国制裁措施的同时,我能做些什么来提供帮助?   

 

A:There are a number of ways to provide humanitarian goods or assistance to the Iranian people in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Iran, consistent with U.S. sanctions.

答: 针对伊朗爆发的COVID-19疫情,有很多符合美国制裁措施的向伊朗人民提供人道主义物资或援助的方式。

  

The making of humanitarian donations to recipients in Iran from the United States or by U.S. persons, including the donation of medicine intended to relieve human suffering, are generally exempt from U.S. sanctions on Iran under section 560.210(b) of the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR Part 560 (ITSR), provided that such donations are not being made to the Government of Iran or other persons blocked pursuant to section 560.211 of the ITSR, or to any individual or entity listed on OFAC’s list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (SDN List).

美国或美国人士向伊朗境内人士提供人道主义捐助,包括捐赠旨在减轻人类痛苦的药品,一般不受美国在《伊朗交易和制裁条例》(ITSR)第560.210(b)条和《美国联邦法规》第31卷第560部分(ITSR)的规定下对伊朗制裁条例的影响。然而,此类捐款不应向伊朗政府或根据ITSR第560.211条被制裁的其他人士提供,或向OFAC特别指定国民和被阻止人名单(SDN名单)所列的任何个人或实体提供。 

                         

In addition, the United States maintains broad exceptions and authorizations that allow for the commercial sale and export of humanitarian goods, including medicine and medical devices, to Iran or the Government of Iran from the United States or by U.S. persons or U.S.-owned or -controlled foreign entities, subject to certain conditions.  U.S. sanctions laws provide similar allowances for sales of humanitarian goods, including medicine and medical devices, to Iran by non-U.S. persons.  These exemptions, exceptions, and authorizations generally do not apply to transactions involving persons on OFAC’s SDN List that have been designated in connection with Iran’s support for international terrorism or proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, including the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). For humanitarian transactions involving the Central Bank of Iran, which was designated as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to Executive Order 13224 as amended, please see General License 8 issued pursuant to the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (GTSR) and the ITSR, as well as OFAC Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) 821, 822, and 823.

此外,在特定情况下,在保留充分的豁免和授权下,美国允许美国、美国人士、或美国所有或控制的外国实体,向伊朗或伊朗政府商业出售和出口人道主义货物,包括药品和医疗器械。美国制裁法案对非美国人士向伊朗出售人道主义物资,包括药品和医疗器械,亦提供了类似的许可。这些豁免、例外和授权通常不适用于与伊朗支持国际恐怖主义或大规模毁灭性武器扩散有关的、涉及OFAC指定的SDN名单上人员(包括伊斯兰革命卫队)的交易。关于涉及伊朗中央银行(根据经修订的第13224号行政命令被指定为SDN全球恐怖分子)的人道主义援助,请参阅根据《全球恐怖主义制裁条例》(GTSR)和ITSR颁发的第8号一般许可证,以及外国资产管制处常见问题解答第821、822和823条。     

  

Furthermore, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are authorized under General License E to export or re-export services to or related to Iran in support of certain not-for-profit activities designed to directly benefit the Iranian people, including the provision of donated health-related services and distribution of donated articles such as medicine intended to be used to relieve human suffering, in Iran.

此外,根据E类一般许可证的授权,非政府组织(NGO)有权向伊朗或与伊朗相关出口或转出口服务,以支持特定的旨在直接造福伊朗人民的非营利活动,包括为伊朗提供与健康有关的捐赠服务和分发捐赠物品,如用于减轻人类痛苦的药品。

    

Persons interested in providing humanitarian assistance to Iran related to the COVID-19 outbreak should review sections 560.210(b), 560.530, 560.532, and 560.533 and General License E of the ITSR and General License 8 issued pursuant to the GTSR and the ITSR, the guidance provided in FAQs 549, 637, 821, 822, 823, and 826, and the guidance provided in “Guidance on the Sale of Food, Agricultural Commodities, Medicine, and Medical Devices by Non-U.S. Persons to Iran” and “Clarifying Guidance on Humanitarian Assistance and Related Exports to the Iranian People.”  Other types of humanitarian activities or exports by U.S. persons may be authorized pursuant to a specific license from OFAC.

有意向伊朗提供与COVID-19爆发有关的人道主义援助的人员应查阅ITSR发布的第560.210(b)、560.530、560.532、560.533节和E类一般许可证以及根据GTSR和ITSR第8项许可证的规定,同时查阅OFAC常见问题第549、637、821、822、823和826中提供的指引以及在“关于非美国人向伊朗出售食品、农产品、药品和医疗器械的指导意见”和“澄清关于向伊朗人民提供人道主义援助和相关出口的指导意见”中规定的内容。其他类型的人道主义活动或美国人士的出口行为,可根据OFAC发放的特别许可证进行。

  

Please note any transfers of funds in support of activities authorized by General License E must be made by the NGOs themselves, and not directly by U.S. individuals, in accordance with the conditions of General License E.

另外请注意,根据E类一般许可证的要求,任何支持E类一般许可证授权活动的资金转移必须由非政府组织进行,而不能由美国个人直接进行。



[1] http://news.ifeng.com/c/7ubLdfiG8Rh


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